In 2016, the Fifth Review Conference of the High Contracting Parties to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) established a Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS). The GEE held its first meeting from 13 to 17 November 2017 in Geneva.
At their 2017 Meeting, the High Contracting Parties to the CCW agreed that the GGE on LAWS shall meet again in 2018 for a duration of ten days in Geneva. The first meeting of the GGE on LAWS in 2018 took place from 9 to 13 April. The second meeting will be held from 27 to 31 August 2018. The meeting will take place in Conference Room XVIII on 27 August and in Room XX from 28 to 31 August 2018. Ambassador Amandeep Singh Gill of India is the chair of both meetings of the GGE on LAWS.
The final report of the 2017 meeting of the GGE on LAWS, particularly the "Conclusions and Recommendations" section, provides guidance and direction for the work of the GGE to be undertaken in 2018.
The overarching issues in the area of LAWS that will be addressed in the 2018 meetings of the GGE include:
Report of the 2018 session of the Group of Governmental Experts on emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems
Emerging Commonalities, Conclusions and Recommendations
- Characterization of the systems under consideration in order to promote a common understanding on concepts and characteristics relevant to the objectives and purposes of the CCW;
- Further consideration of the human element in the use of lethal force; aspects of human-machine interaction in the development, deployment and use of emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems;
- Review of potential military applications of related technologies in the context of the Group’s work;
- Possible options for addressing the humanitarian and international security challenges posed by emerging technologies in the area of LAWS in the context of the objectives and purposes of the Convention without prejudging policy outcomes and taking into account past, present and future proposals.
(including Possible Guiding Principles) - Unformatted advance version
Chair's summary of the discussion on agenda items 6 a, b, c and d, 9-13 April 2018
List of Participants
+ List of Participants Addendum
Provisional Programme of Work
Letter from the Chairperson of the Group of Governmental Experts related to emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS), dated 10 January 2018
The Chair of the CCW GGE on LAWS would like to invite ALL non-governmental actors to contribute reflections, ideas, insights and experiences to enrich the April and August deliberations of governmental experts. Please refer to the newly released programme and agenda to frame your contribution(s).
You may submit contributions to firstname.lastname@example.org
Registration of participants
Working Papers for the second meeting of the GGE on LAWS (27 - 31 August 2018)
Working Papers for the second meeting of the GGE on LAWS (27 - 31 August 2018) need to be submitted to the CCW mailbox (email@example.com) in Word format
(PDF files can't be processed) for processing, formatting and uploading to the website by 6 August 2018
. It is recommended that courtesy translations in English are submitted at the same time.
- Human Machine Touchpoints: The United Kingdom's perspective on human control over weapon development and targeting cycles
- Categorizing lethal autonomous weapons systems - A technical and legal perspective to understanding LAWS. Working paper by Estonia and Finland
- Human-machine interaction in the development, deployment and use of emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems - France
- Human-Machine Interaction in the Development, Deployment, and Use of Emerging Technologies in the Area of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems - United States
- Areas of Convergence on LAWS - Brazil
- The Australian Article 36 Review Process - Australia
- Proposal for a Mandate to Negotiate a Legally-binding Instrument that addresses the Legal, Humanitarian and Ethical concerns posed by Emerging Technologies in the Area of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS) - Austria, Brazil and Chile
Working Papers submitted for the first meeting of the GGE on LAWS (9 - 13 April 2018)
- General Principles on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems - Non-Aligned Movement and Other States Parties to the CCW
- Strengthening of the review mechanisms of a new weapon, means or methods of warfare - Argentina (courtesy translation in English
- Working Paper on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems - Poland
- Humanitarian benefits of emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems - United States of America
- Ethics and autonomous weapon system: An ethical basis for human control? - International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
- Russia's Approaches to the Elaboration of a Working Definition and Basic Functions of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems in the Context of the purposes and Objectives of the Convention - Russian Federation (courtesy translation in English
- Position Paper - China
Contributions from non-governmental actors
- Campaign To Stop Killer Robots - Briefing Note
, also available in French
- Center for Autonomy and AI (CAAI) - Redefining Human Control - Lessons from the Battlefield for Autonomous Weapons
- School of Law, Birmingham City University - Dr Ozlem Ulgen, Definition and Regulation of LAWS
and Command Responsibility and LAWS
- University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill - Mark Avrum Gubrud, Adjunct Assistant Professor, The Ottawa Definition of Landmines as a Start to Defining LAWS
- International Committee for Robot Arms Control - Guidelines for the human control of weapons
- ICT4 Peace Foundation, Regina Surber, Scientific Advisor - Artificial Intelligence: Autonomous Technology (AT), Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS) and Peace Time Threats
- Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights - Maya Brehm, Defending the Boundary - Constraints and Requirements on the Use of Autonomous Weapon Systems under International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law
- International Panel on the Regulation of Autonomous Weapons (iPRAW) - Focus on the Human-Machine Relation in LAWS
- Trusted Autonomous Systems Defence Cooperative Research Centre - Prof. Jason Scholz & University of South Wales, Canberra - Dr. Jai Galliott - AI in Weapons: The Moral Imperative For Minimally-Just Autonomy
- South African Research Chair in International Law - Dr Thompson Chengeta, International law and the standard of human control in weapon systems
For updates, please check this page and follow us on twitter @CCW_UNODA.
Who can participate in a CCW GGE? The CCW GGE on LAWS is not the same as a GGE established under the General Assembly. The GGE on LAWS is open to all High Contracting Parties and States non-parties (which may participate as observers) of the CCW, international organizations and non-governmental organizations, as per the CCW Rules of Procedure.
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