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Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)




IEDs have been the focus for the past few years and States parties are in the process of compiling existing guidelines and best practices aiming at addressing the diversion or illicit use of materials that can eventually be used for making IEDs.

IEDs have long been one of the main causes of casualties among military forces and have a long-term impact on the civilian population. APII makes it clear that the civilian population, individual civilians or civilian objects must not be targeted. This is the reason why it has been the focus of the States Parties since 2009 to continue to share experience on the scale of the humanitarian problem posed by IEDs and to learn about efforts to defeat and prevent the use of IEDs at a national, regional and international level, by producing a compilation existing guidelines and best practices aiming at addressing the diversion or illicit use of materials that can eventually be used for making IEDs.


Questionnaire on Improvised Explosive Devices
(CCW/AP.II/CONF.17/WP.1)
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Compilation of existing guidelines, best practices, and other recommendations aimed at addressing the diversion or illicit use of materials which can be used for IEDs

A draft Compilation was first circulated on 5 April 2012 by the Co-Coordinators on IEDs and was discussed by the Group of Experts. The Group welcomed the draft and supported its dissemination. Subsequently, the Fourteenth Annual Conference requested the Implementation Support Unit to disseminate the Compilation and, in consultation with the Coordinators and the High Contracting Parties, to maintain the Compilation on an ongoing basis, including updating it as new relevant guidelines, best practices, recommendations and other comments are published.

The High Contracting Parties are invited to update the Compilation at any moment. Please contact the ISU for any assistance on this matter.

For convenience, the list of existing guidelines, best practices, and other recommendations are listed below.

I. Definitions
    A. Definitions with relevance to IEDs
OrganizationGuidelines, best practices, and other recommendations
UNInternational Ammunition Technical Guidelines UN Group of Governmental Experts on conventional ammunition stockpiles in surplus (A/63/182)
    Definition of "diversion" (paragraph 16)
ICAO1991 Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection (MARPLEX Convention)
    Article 1: Definitions
    B. Classification
OrganizationGuidelines, best practices, and other recommendations
UNGlobally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS), ST/SG/AC.10/38/Add.3 (December 2010)

International Ammunition Technical Guidelines
OSCEHandbook on Best Practices on Conventional Ammunition (September 2008) - EnglishRussianFrench - Spanish

Handbook on Best Practices on Ammunition Transportation - EnglishRussianFrench - Spanish
NATOManual of NATO Safety Principles for the Hazard Classification of Military Ammunition and Explosives (AASTP-3)
US Department of DefenseManual on Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards: General Explosives Safety Information and Requirements, DoD 6055.09-M, Volume 1 (August 2010)

II. Prevention
    A. Stockpile Management and Security
OrganizationGuidelines, best practices, and other recommendations
UNInternational Ammunition Technical Guidelines UN Group of Governmental Experts on conventional ammunition stockpiles in surplus (A/63/182)
    Ineffective stockpile management can lead to diversion, insecurity and use of explosives in IEDs (paragraphs 2, 5, 11, 17 and 51-52 and recommendations)
Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee, Directory of International Best Practices, Codes and Standards

    Paragraph 2(a): eliminating the supply of weapons to terrorists:

    (a) legislation to control arms and explosives
    (d) legal and administrative measures to control arms and explosives, including greater security and enhanced controls of arms
CCWProtocol V on Explosive Remnants of War
    Technical Annex: generic preventive measures
UNMAS/GICHDInternational Mine Action Standards
OSCEHandbook on Best Practices on Conventional Ammunition (September 2008) - EnglishRussianFrench - Spanish

Best Practice Guide on Procedures for Management of Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition – English - RussianFrench - Spanish

Best Practice Guide on Physical Security of Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition – EnglishRussianFrench - Spanish

NATOManual of NATO Safety Principles for the Storage of Military Ammunition and Explosives (AASTP-1) (May 2010)

NATO Guidelines for the Storage, Maintenance and Transport of Ammunition on Deployed Operations or Missions (AASTP-5)

GICHDA Guide to Ammunition Storage (November 2008)
    Overview of standards and norms (chapter 2)
    Safe storage of ammunition (chapter 3)
    Control of ammunition storage areas (chapter 4)
US Department of DefensePhysical Security of Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives, DoD 5100.76-M (August 2000)

    B. Transport Security

OrganizationGuidelines, best practices, and other recommendations
ICAOConvention on International Civil Aviation Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (Doc 9284).
IMOInternational Ship and Port Facility Security Code
OSCEHandbook on Best Practices on Conventional Ammunition (September 2008) - EnglishRussianFrench - Spanish

Handbook on Best Practices on Ammunition Transportation - EnglishRussianFrench - Spanish
NATOManual of NATO Safety Principles for the Transport of Military Ammunition and Explosives (AASTP-2)

NATO Guidelines for the Storage, Maintenance and Transport of Ammunition on Deployed Operations or Missions (AASTP-5)


C. Import/Export - Transfer Elements


OrganizationGuidelines, best practices, and other recommendations
UNSecurity Council Counter-Terrorism Committee, Directory of International Best Practices, Codes and Standards

Paragraph 2(a): eliminating the supply of weapons to terrorists:

(a) legislation to control arms and explosives
(d) legal and administrative measures to control arms and explosives, including greater security and enhanced controls of arms

WCOSAFE Framework of standards to secure and facilitate global trade
Section 4, Pillar 2: Customs to Business

Programme Global Shield

InterpolBest practices in combating terrorism
OSCEPrinciples for export controls of MANPADS (May 2004)
OASProposed model legislation and commentaries for strengthening controls at export points for firearms, ammunition, explosives and other related materials (May 2008)

Draft model legislation and commentaries on legislative measures to establish criminal offences in relation to the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms, ammunition, explosive and other related materials (May 2008)

League of Arab StatesArab Model Law on weapons, ammunitions, explosives and hazardous material
Wassenaar ArrangementElements for exportcontrols of Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS)

Best Practices for effective enforcement (2000)


D. Marking, Tracing, Identification, and Detection


OrganizationGuidelines, best practices, and other recommendations
ICAO1991 Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection (MARPLEX Convention)
OSCEHandbook on Best Practices on Conventional Ammunition (September 2008) - EnglishRussianFrench - Spanish

Best Practice Guide on Ammunition Marking, Registration and Record-Keeping - EnglishRussianFrench - Spanish


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